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Posted 12/3/2014

Release no. 14-337

Jeff Hawk
(412) 395-7500/01
(412) 395-7503 (fax)
1000 Liberty Ave Pittsburgh, Pa. 15222

PITTSBURGH, Pa — Public safety is the number-one priority of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pittsburgh District. The district urges anyone planning to be on or around water to practice boating and water safety.

Life jackets save lives and should be worn at all times by anyone who is boating and waterfowl hunting or fishing. Statistics show that nearly 90 percent of people who drown were not wearing a life jacket and nearly two-thirds didn’t plan to be in the water.

If you are planning on being outdoors near or on the water, dress appropriately for the water temperature – not the air temperature just in case you capsize or are thrown from the boat. You could be in cold water and unable to swim in a short period of time because your muscles will get cold and you will lose the ability to rescue yourself. Many drowning victims actually die from cold water immersion instead of hypothermia, but you should still know what it is.  Hypothermia is a condition in which the body loses heat faster than it can produce it. Violent shivering develops which may give way to confusion and the loss of body movement.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Operations Center for Water Safety advises that the danger to individuals who are immersed into cold water increases as water temperature decreases below normal body temperature (98.6 degrees F). Cold-water immersion follows four stages: cold shock; swimming failure; hypothermia; and post-rescue collapse. Most cold-water drowning fatalities are attributed to the first two stages.

If you fall into cold water, remember the 1-10-1 rule. Cold shock will pass in approximately 1 minute.  This is an initial deep and sudden gasp followed by hyperventilation.  During this time, you must concentrate on not panicking and getting your breathing under control.  For approximately the next 10 minutes, you will lose the effective use of your fingers, arms and legs.  During this time concentrate on self rescue initially, and if that isn’t possible, prepare to have a way to keep your airway clear to breath and wait for rescue. Even in ice water it could take approximately 1 hour before becoming unconscious due to hypothermia.

It is critical that you wear a life jacket to keep afloat and your head above water.  Life jacket styles are available for almost any type of activity including hunting and cold weather. There are float coats available in many colors including camouflage for waterfowl hunting and for those who boat when air and water temperatures are cool.  In addition to wearing a life jacket, there are some things you can do to delay hypothermia.  The Heat Escape Lessening (HELP) and Huddle Positions will help conserve body heat.  If alone in cold water, pull your knees up to your chest and wrap your arms around your knees.  If you are with other people, huddle together as close as possible and wrap your arms around each other.

It is important for all boaters to wear a life jacket. Avoid boating alone and let someone know where you are going and when you plan to return. Check the capacity plate and don’t overload your boat. Dress for the water temperature, and know how to minimize heat loss if you end up in the water. Visit www.CorpsLakes.us/watersafety for more information that could save your life or the life of someone you love.

boating cold drowning fishing hunting hypothermia life jacket Pittsburgh District rescue safety shock temperature U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water Waterfowl